Complex Conventional Reservoirs

The oil and gas industry is challenged in carbonate formations as it tries to increase recovery in mature reservoirs or face development questions in new fields. There is a high level in interest in targeting remaining oil with processes like WAG, CO2, low salinity flooding, surfactants, infill drilling, etc. The traditional tools reservoir engineers use for these questions are numerical simulators that rely on physical properties that Ingrain can provide. Major studies use these results to provide management with quantitative forecast that create options.


Services available for Carbonates include:

  • Whole core X-Ray CT image (~500 images/ft)

  • Bulk density and effective atomic number logs

  • Porosity - Micro, Macro (total and connected)

  • Absolute permeability (x, y & z direction)

  • Elastic properties

  • Formation factor and cementation exponent (m)

  • Capillary pressure including primary drainage, primary imbibition, secondary drainage and secondary imbibition

  • Saturation exponent "n"

  • Relative Permeability for any two phases (OW, GO, GW) steady state and includes end points


The common practice of taking a plug scale sample every foot can create inconsistent results in highly complex carbonate systems that contain dual porosity, eg macro and micro-porosity systems. The common approach also is expensive, time consuming, uses different rock samples for different physical tests and does not have any efficiencies in running sensitivities for variables with high uncertainty.

Ingrain has a proven technology and work flow that allows clients to better characterize the details of the rock fabric and upscale these results to reservoir simulator block scale. This can be done in many cases faster and at less overall cost when combined with current work practices.



sololink.png Download literature related to Ingrain's work in conventional reservoirs:

DRP for Carbonates brochure

Relevance of Computational Rock Physics - SEG Technical Paper, Oct 2011

Digital Rock Physics Analysis in Complex Carbonates - World Oil, May 2011

A Comparative Study of Digital Rock Physics and Laboratory SCAL Evaluations of Carbonate Core - SCA, Nov 2010